Author and scientist Roberta Gibson provides advice for homeschoolers and students on how to put together an aquarium. Her information includes how to start, freshwater verus saltwater, what type of fish to purchase, the tank equipment you will need, the ph needed for water quality, the water temperature needed, and resources for further in-depth study on aquaculture.

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The Unschooling Handbook
How to Use the Whole World As Your Child's Classroom
by Mary Griffith
Unschooling, a homeschooling method based on the belief that kids learn best when allowed to pursue their natural curiosities and interests, is practiced by 10 to 15 percent of the estimated 1.5 million homeschoolers in the United States.

Homeschooling Our Children Unschooling Ourselves
by Alison McKee
Patrick Farenga, editor, "Growing Without Schooling": An honest and touching account of how homeschooling leads to new attitudes and possibilities for learning.
Impartial observers from other planets would consider ours an utterly bizarre enclave if it were populated by birds, defined as flying animals, that nevertheless rarely or never actually flew. They would also be perplexed if they encountered in our seas, lakes, rivers, and ponds, creatures defined as swimmers that never did any swimming. But they would be even more surprised to encounter a species defined as a thinking animal if, in fact, the creature very rarely indulged in actual thinking.
~ Steve Allen

    Adding Fish To Your World
    Roberta Gibson

    What comes to mind when you think of a tropical fish tank? A restaurant? A doctor’s office? Or is it the memory of your own childhood aquarium filled with mollies and guppies? My earliest recollections are of the local tropical fish shop. Our whole family would troop down the stairs to the warm, humid basement where thousands of fish would be swimming in gloriously lit tanks. My sister and I would get to each chose a fish. After long and careful deliberations, into the plastic baggie they would go. We would carefully hold our prizes upright in the bag all the way home in the car. Then they would sit in a plastic-baggie bubble-like world floating in the top of the tank until the water temperature reached that of the surroundings, probably a half hour or so, but seemingly forever to a small child. At last it was time for release. Our fish were home.

    Keeping tropical fish can be a rewarding and educational pastime and is a popular hobby. I am astonished how much fish biology, chemistry, and physics I remember from having a childhood fish tank. But do not make the common mistake of thinking that fish are pets that require no care. Setting up and maintaining a tank correctly does take some time and energy. As an adult I find the mixing and correcting of water quality tedious and my husband has taken over that chore. (That doesn’t mean he is more responsible than I am, just ask our cats). But as a child it was a great opportunity to learn responsibility.

    Where to start? Check out a book or two from your library or surf the Internet (Resource 1). You will need to know about things like filtration, aeration, water quality, and the type of tanks available that would best suit your needs. Also, you will need to decide whether you want saltwater or freshwater. Spend some time in pet shops and hobby shops to see what is available.

    Freshwater versus Saltwater

    Generally a beginner should start with a freshwater aquarium. The saltwater fish can be enticing to look at, but the water chemistry is much more complex. Also, a majority of tropical freshwater fish are raised here in the United States, mostly in Florida. Saltwater fish are difficult to raise and are often collected in the wild, sometimes in less than environmentally friendly ways.


    Think carefully about where your tank will go. I would not recommend setting it up in a child’s bedroom; the aeration equipment can be noisy. Ours gets a weird vibration at times that can be heard miles away. (Fortunately it is easily cured with a thump.) Think of the tank as a major piece of furniture and plan accordingly. Also, it will need to be near an electrical outlet. If you have only a small counter space available, keep that in mind when the salesperson at the pet shop tries to sell you a thirty-gallon tank.


    What will you need? You will need some sort of tank, a filter, a thermometer, a heater, an air pump, plastic tubing, a cover (probably with a light), some aquarium gravel, assorted plants (live and/or plastic), decorations, a net, water test kits, cleaning tools, a bucket to hold waste water, and possibly a timer for the light. All this may be purchased as a kit or separately. The price and quality will vary considerably. Try pet stores, department stores, and hobby shops before you buy. You can also shop on the Internet or mail order catalogs. The ideal situation for learning what you will need is a visit to the local hobbyist who runs a small business, but those are rare these days.

    Water Quality

    Next you will need some water for your fish. Guess what? Not just any water will do! Is your child ready for chemistry? You will need to find out the pH and hardness of your drinking water. Many pet stores will perform water quality analysis as a service, usually for free. But it is also fun to purchase a test kit and do some of the analysis yourself.

    The pH is a measure of the hydrogen ions dissolved in water, or more simply, a measure of whether the water is acidic or basic. Tropical fish prefer a pH of nearly neutral, around the 6.8 to 7.4 range. Typically, alkaline waters, those with pH above 7.0 (which is neutral), have a lot of dissolved salts in them. That is the case with our water here in the Southwest. You may have to add water conditioners to correct your water hardness or chose fish that can tolerate more alkalinity such as mollies and tetras, or both. Never use pure distilled water or rainwater because it does not have enough salts, which is just as bad as being too salty. If your water is chlorinated, then you will need to let it set out for awhile and add conditioners to remove the chlorine before use. Your child may suggest using pond or lake water; after all, the lake fish live in it okay. The problem is that the lake fish may have diseases or parasites that can be transferred to your fish. Tap water is still better.

    You want to keep the numbers of fish low, especially at first, because too many fish can also change water quality through the build-up of wastes. When fish waste and uneaten food break down in the tank, they can cause a build-up of the substance ammonia. Ammonia is that strong-smelling chemical in some household cleaners. Can you imagine swimming in that? Bad news! You can buy test kits for testing your ammonia level. If it is high, you will need to clean the tank, add special bacteria that help remove ammonia, and/or modify your filtration system. Also, make sure you are not feeding the fish more than they can clean up in a few minutes.

    Try to clean the tank and refresh the water on a regular basis, such as every few weeks. Never use soap or detergent on any of the equipment that will come in contact with fish. Only change up to half the water at any one time, and add your specially conditioned water at room temperature or as close to the tank temperature as possible.


    After you set up your aquarium and fill it with water, then you will need to adjust the heater to the proper temperature before adding fish. Tropical fish tend to be quite sensitive to changes in water temperature. Check for the optimal temperatures for the fish you are going to chose and make sure your heater can hold those temperatures over at least twenty-four hours. Your children will be impatient for their fish, but getting the heater working will save a lot of heartache, and fried fish, in the long run.

    Choosing the Right Fish

    If you have done your biology homework, you will know that you need to purchase fish that get along with one another. Some fish are docile, others can be aggressive to other fish. It is usually best to buy a few of each kind because most fish like to school together in a tank. All the fish should be roughly the same size. A bottom feeding catfish or algae eater is usually recommended to help keep the tank cleaner. Show your children how the mouth is pointed down on the bottom feeder. You will also need to buy an appropriate fish food.

    Fish Disposal – A Matter of Life and Death

    Eventually you will have to deal with illness and death in a fish tank. It is a good idea to be prepared and use this as a teaching moment. Reference 1 has some good information about dispatching an ailing fish. Never flush a dead or dying fish down the toilet; that spreads the illness and is cruel to the fish. Reference 1 also suggests that freezing a fish is not a good idea either. A good way to dispose of a dead fish is to bury it in the backyard, if possible. Fight the urge to buy another similar fish at the store and hope your child doesn’t notice. Let your child know what is happening and discuss it instead.

    Going Further

    If your children become fascinated with fish, you can try some Fish Activities Without Water. Most can be done without a tank at home.

    Let you children know that the science of raising fish, called aquaculture, is a promising field for the future. They can also study fisheries biology, marine biology, or oceanography. Read The Desert Beneath the Sea (Resource 2) to find out about what Marine Biologist Eugenie Clark studies and how she started as a young girl with an aquarium at home. Who knows what career your simple fish tank might launch!


    1. Beginning Fish Keeping

    2. The Desert Beneath the Sea, Ann McGovern & Eugenie Clark, Scholastic Trade, New York, 1991, ISBN: 0590426389

    Copyright April 2002
    Originally published in May/June 2002 issue of HELM (Home Education Learning Magazine).

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Fish Watching With Eugenia Clark
Naturalist's Apprentice Biographies
by Michael Elsohn Ross
The life and career of ichthyologist Eugenie Clark, who began her research observing fresh-water aquarium fishes and moved on to the underwater study of sharks and other marine animals.

Aquarium Fish
DK Handbooks
by Dick Mills
This illustrated, compact guide provides general information on the choice and care of fish, natural habitats, required aquarium conditions, and specific details on freshwater and marine tropical and coldwater fishes.

Freshwater Aquarium Problem Solver
Animal Planet Pet Care Library
by David E. Boruchowitz
Use this as your troubleshooting companion to address a range of both common and infrequent freshwater aquarium needs.

Girls Who Looked Under Rocks
The Lives of Six Pioneering Naturalists
by Jeannine Atkins
The six women portrayed in this book--Maria Merian, Anna Comstock, Frances Hamerstrom, Rachel Carson, Miriam Rothschild and Jane Goodall--all grew up to become award-winning scientists, writers and artists, as comfortable with a pen as with a magnifying glass.

The Simple Guide to Fresh Water Aquariums
by David E. Boruchowitz
The Simple Guide to Freshwater Aquariums concentrates on providing you with a complete plan and all the information you need to choose and use the right-for-you aquarium equipment and the right-for-you fish and plants: it wants you to succeed.

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